Sunday, 14 June,

Were Harūt and Marūt Angels or Kings?

Posted in (02) Tafsīr Sūraħ Al Baqaraħ, Articles in English, Sciences of Qira'āħ (Qur'ānic Recitations) tagged , , , , , , , , , , , at 7:51 pm by Ibn al-Kashmiri

بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

الحمد الله

Allāh سبحانه و تعالى tells us,

وَاتَّبَعُوا مَا تَتْلُو الشَّيَاطِينُ عَلَىٰ مُلْكِ سُلَيْمَانَ ۖ وَمَا كَفَرَ سُلَيْمَانُ وَلَـٰكِنَّ الشَّيَاطِينَ كَفَرُوا يُعَلِّمُونَ النَّاسَ السِّحْرَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ عَلَى الْمَلَكَيْنِ بِبَابِلَ هَارُوتَ وَمَارُوتَ ۚ وَمَا يُعَلِّمَانِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ حَتَّىٰ يَقُولَا إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ فِتْنَةٌ فَلَا تَكْفُرْ ۖ فَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مِنْهُمَا مَا يُفَرِّقُونَ بِهِ بَيْنَ الْمَرْءِ وَزَوْجِهِ ۚ وَمَا هُم بِضَارِّينَ بِهِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۚ

“They followed what the Shayāṭīn (devils) gave out (falsely of the magic) in the lifetime of Sulaymān (Solomon). Sulaymān did not disbelieve, but the Shayāṭīn (devils) disbelieved, teaching men magic and such things that came down at Babylon to the two angels, Hārūt and Mārūt, but neither of these two (angels) taught anyone (such things) till they had said, “We are only for trial, so disbelieve not (by learning this magic from us).” And from these (angels) people learn that by which they cause separation between man and his wife, but they could not thus harm anyone except by Allāh’s Leave…”[1]

The word Allāh سبحانه و تعالى has used to mention about the Hārūt and Mārūt is الْمَلَكَيْنِ. The root of this word is مَلَكَ which means an Angel.  But, Imām al-Baghawī رحمه الله mentions in his tafsīr that cAbdullāh bin cAbbās رضي الله عنهما, Al-Ḥasan رحمه الله and Imām Fakhrud-Dīn ar-Rāzī رحمه الله mentions that aḍ-Ḍaḥḥāk رحمه الله used to recite the word as الْمَلِكَيْنِ [2]whose root is مَلِكَ with a kasraħ on lām rather than fatḥaħ.  This fact is also mentioned in Tafsīr al-Kashshāf by Imām az-Zamakhsharī

One might wonder, the Qur’ān is in different recitations? The answer to this question is yes, it has reached to us in ten different but authentic Qiracāħ. Before we study the variant recitation of the verse, lets give a brief introduction to the different Qiracāħ of the Qur’ān.

A Qiracāħ is, for the most part, a method of pronunciation used in the recitations of the Qur’ān. These methods are different from the seven forms or modes (ḥurūf) in which the Qur’ān was revealed. The seven modes were reduced to one, that of Quraysh, during the era of Caliph cUthmān رضي الله عنه when he ordered that the Qur’ān be copied in the Qurayshī dialect and distributed among the Islāmic centers of the time. Hence, only the Qurayshī mode remains today and all of the methods of recitation are based on this mode. The various methods have all been traced back to the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم through a number of the Ṣaḥābaħ رضي الله عنهما who were most noted for their Qur’ānic recitations. That is, these Ṣaḥābaħ رضي الله عنهما recited the Qur’ān to the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم or in his presence and received his approval. Among them were the following: Ubayy ibn Kacb, cAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib, Zayd ibn Thābit, Ibn Mascūd, Abū ad-Dardā’, and Abū Mūsa al-Ashcarī رضي الله عنهما. Many of the other Ṣaḥābaħ رضي الله عنهما learned from these masters. cAbdullāh Ibn cAbbās رضي الله عنهما, the master commentator of the Qur’ān among the Ṣaḥābaħ رضي الله عنهما, learned from both Ubayy and Zayd رضي الله عنهما. [3]

Among the next generation of Muslims, referred to as the Tabicūn there arose many scholars who learned the various methods of recitation from the Ṣaḥābaħ رضي الله عنهما and taught them to others. Centers of Qur’ānic recitation developed in Madīnaħ, Makkaħ, Kūfaħ, Baṣraħ, and ashShām (Greater Syria), leading to the evolution of Qur’ānic recitation into an independent science.[4] By the mid eighth century CE, there existed a large number of outstanding scholars, all of whom were considered specialists in the field of recitation. Most of their methods of recitation were authenticated by chains of reliable narrators, ending with the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم. Those methods on each level of their chain were called Mutawātir and were considered to be the most accurate. Those methods in which the number of narrators were few or one on any level of the chain were referred to as Shādh.

However, some of the scholars of the following period began the practice of designating a set number of individual scholars from the previous period as being the most noteworthy and accurate reciters. By the middle of the tenth century CE (6th century AH), it became a popular convention to limit the number of best reciters to seven, since this number coincided with the number of ḥurūf in which the Qur’ān was revealed.

Similarly, during this period the number of schools of Islāmic law (Madhhab) were reduced to the famous four after a period in which there were many. The first to limit the number of authentic reciters to seven was the cIrāqī scholar, Abū Bakr ibn Mujāhid رحمه الله (d. 936 CE), and those who wrote books on Qiracāħ after him followed suit.[5] This limitation is not an accurate representation of the classical scholars of Qur’ānic recitation. There were many others who were as good as the seven and a number who were greater than them. In fact, the classification of scholars was really a classification of how well their methods of recitation were preserved. Hence, the famous seven were those early scholars from different generations whose methods of recitation had the most chains of narrators with many narrations on each level of the chain. However, there were other classical scholars whose methods of recitation were just as authentically (Mutawātir) recorded as the famous seven. A list of the ten scholars of Qur’ānic recitation whose methods were best preserved is as follows:

1. Abū cAmr ibn al-cAlā (d. 771 CE/154 AH) of Baṣraħ

2. Ibn Kathīr (d. 738 CE/119 AH) was among the students of the Ṣaḥābaħ رضي الله عنهما of Makkaħ.

3. Nāfic (d. 786 CE/169 AH) was originally from Iṣfahān, and his recitation, as transmitted by Warsh (d. 812 CE/196 AH), was of Madīnaħ.

4. Ibn cĀmir (d. 737 CE/118 AH) was the chief judge (Qāḍī) of Damascus during the reign of al-Walīd ibn cAbdul Mālik, who, along with the other Umayyad caliphs, made that city his capital.

5. cĀṣim (d. 746 CE/128 AH) of Kūfaħ was the narrator of the dominant recitation in current use. His narration, as transmitted by Ḥafṣ, is the most common method of narration used in the Muslim world today with the exception of Africa.

6. Ḥamzaħ (d. 773 CE/156 AH) of Kūfaħ.

7. Al-Kisā’ī (d. 805 CE/189 AH) of Kūfaħ was one of the foremost grammarians. He played a major role in the formulation of Arabic grammar rules.

8.  Abū Jacfar (d. 750 CE/132 AH) of Madīnaħ.

9. Yacqūb (d. 820 CE/204 AH) of Baṣraħ.

10. Khalaf (d. 844 CE/229 AH) of Baghdād رحمهم الله

At the same time that scholars of ḥadīth laid down conditions to determine the authenticity of statements or actions attributed to the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم, scholars of Qur’ānic recitation also formulated conditions to facilitate critical analysis of the existing recitations. For any given recitation to be accepted as authentic (Ṣaḥīḥ), it had to fulfill three conditions. If any of the conditions were missing, such a recitation was classified as Shādh (unusual). The first condition was that the recitation have an authentic chain of narration; that is, that the chain of narrators had to be unbroken, that the narrators were known to be righteous, and that they were known to possess good memories. It was also required that the recitation be conveyed by a large number of narrators on each level of the chain of narration below the level of the Ṣaḥābaħ رضي الله عنهما (the condition of Tawātur). Narrations which had authentic chains but lacked the condition of Tawātur were accepted as explanations (Tafsīr) of Ṣaḥābaħ رضي الله عنهما, but were not considered as methods of reciting the Qur’ān. As for narrations which did not even have an authentic chain of narration, they were classified “bāṭil” (false) and rejected totally.

The second condition was that the recitations’ variations match known Arabic grammatical constructions. Unusual constructions were verified by their existence in passages of pre-Islamic prose or poetry.

The third condition required the recitation to coincide with the script of one of the copies of Qur’ān distributed during the era of Caliph cUthmān رضي الله عنه. Hence, differences which result from dot placement (e.g. taclamūn and yaclamūn) are considered acceptable, provided the other conditions are met. If no support for an unusual condition could be found, the recitation of that construction would be classified Shādh. [6]

This classification did not mean that all aspects of the recitation were considered Shādh; in fact, none of the accepted ten methods are totally free from some Shādh constructions. Shādh narrations of this type also serve as explanations for the authentic narrations, as they are obviously statements of the Ṣaḥābaħ رضي الله عنهما.

Now back to the issue of variant recitation.  The answer to this question is that it is an odd recitation that has was rejected by Imām Aṭ-Ṭabarī رحمه الله although it was transmitted in authentic chain from cAbdullāh bin cAbbās رضي الله عنهما. This recitation is both Shadhaħ and Mashhuraħ at the same time as it is a recitation that that is according to Arabic language and match the writings of the cUthmānī script written words that comes in authentic chain but did not reach level of Tawātur.  And, it is not one of the ten famous Qiracāħ that are known famously. This ayaħ’s tafsīr been disputed by the scholars of the past so it is not possible to say which of the tafsīrs is stronger. And indeed, Allāh سبحانه و تعالى knows best.

[1] Sūraħ al-Baqaraħ, 2:102

[2] Mcālim at-Tanzīl

[3] Al-Itqān

[4] Ibid

[5] Ibid

[6] Ibid

Sunday, 24 May,

Are you from amongst the Heedless ones?

Posted in (07) Tafsīr Sūraħ Al A'rāf tagged , , , , at 9:04 pm by Ibn al-Kashmiri

بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

الحمد الله

Allah سبحانه و تعالى says in Surat Al A’raaf,

وَلَقَدْ ذَرَأْنَا لِجَهَنَّمَ كَثِيرًا مِّنَ الْجِنِّ وَالْإِنسِ ۖ لَهُمْ قُلُوبٌ لَّا يَفْقَهُونَ بِهَا وَلَهُمْ أَعْيُنٌ لَّا يُبْصِرُونَ بِهَا وَلَهُمْ آذَانٌ لَّا يَسْمَعُونَ بِهَا ۚ أُولَـٰئِكَ كَالْأَنْعَامِ بَلْ هُمْ أَضَلُّ ۚ أُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْغَافِلُونَ

“And surely, We have created many of the jinns and mankind for Hell. They have hearts wherewith they understand not, they have eyes wherewith they see not, and they have ears wherewith they hear not (the truth). They are like cattle, nay even more astray; those! They are the heedless ones.”[1]

Out of His fairness, Allah سبحانه و تعالى describes to us the heedless people so we can take guidance and leave the wrong path we are upon currently towards Siraat Al Mustaqeem.

Al Hasan, Al Suddi, Mujahid & ‘Abdullah bin al-‘Abbas رضي الله عنهم said regarding the word ذَرَأْنَا that it means “We Created.”[2] We is used for Allah سبحانه و تعالى as in a royal ‘We’ not a plural ‘We’

وَلَقَدْ ذَرَأْنَا لِجَهَنَّمَ

Al Haafidh Ibn Kathir رحمه الله wrote in his tafsir explaining this phrase,

“We made a share in the Fire.”

كَثِيرًا مِّنَ الْجِنِّ وَالإِنْسِ

He then continues,

“We prepared them for it by their performance of the deeds of its people. When Allah سبحانه و تعالى intended to create the creation, He knew what their work will be before they existed. He wrote all this in a Book, kept with Him, fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and earth. As Imam Muslim رحمه الله has recorded a hadith Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم saying, “Verily, Allah decided the destination and due measurement of the creation fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and earth, and His Throne was over the water.” [3]

لَهُمْ قُلُوبٌ لَّا يَفْقَهُونَ بِهَا

Then Allah سبحانه و تعالى describes the people from amongst the Jinn and Humans he has created for Jahannam starting off by mention their condition of their hearts as Rasul Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم said as a part of a longer hadith,

“…Beware, in the body there is a flesh; if it is sound, the whole body is sound, and if it is corrupt, the whole body is corrupt, and behold, it is the heart.”[4]

Al Haafidh Ibn Hajr Al ‘Asqalaani رحمه الله said,

“The heart has been singled out for this because it is the leader of the body, and through the purification of the leader the subjects become purified, and with his corruption, they become corrupted.”[5]

As for the Tafsir of the ayah, Imam Al Tabari رحمه الله says,

“These people are those who are created for Jahannam from His creation; who do not ponder with it (i.e. the heart) the ayaat of Allah سبحانه و تعالى nor contemplate the proofs of His Oneness nor do they think over the arguments proving His Messengers عليهم صلاة و السلام. However, they do know the Oneness of their Lord سبحانه و تعالى and they are acquainted with the reality of Prophet Hood of the Prophets عليهم صلاة و السلام. Thus, our Lord سبحانه و تعالى has described them with not understanding with it (i.e. heart) because of their turning away from the Truth and forsaking of their pondering over truthfulness of success and extent of thanklessness.”[6]

Imam Al Qurtubi رحمه الله said,

“Because they don’t benefit from it (what is revealed) and they do not contemplate upon the rewards nor fear the punishments.”[7]

Mujahid bin Jabr رحمه الله said,

“They don’t understand with it (i.e. heart) the affairs of hereafter.”[8]

Imam Al Baghawi رحمه الله writes,

“They don’t realise good and guidance.”[9]

This phrase of the ayah talks about those people who have no interest in gaining the knowledge of the Deen because when they are told to remember Allah سبحانه و تعالى and learn about His Oneness and study the Messengers عليهم صلاة و السلام, they refuse to do so and prefer to remain ignorant. Thus, when they are reminded of the signs pointing to the Oneness of Allah سبحانه و تعالى, they refuse to know them even though they believe in them. And since they have no knowledge, they lack the fear of Jahannam and love of Jannah.

Then Allah سبحانه و تعالى continues,

وَلَهُمْ أَعْيُنٌ لَّا يُبْصِرُونَ بِهَا

It is noted from the Tafasir that this section of the ayah has similar meaning to the previous one but in addition the scholars write that they (the people mentioned in this ayah) do not see the Truth. [10]

وَلَهُمْ آذَانٌ لَّا يَسْمَعُونَ بِهَا

Imams Al Tabari , Al Baghawi & Al Shawkani رحمهم الله say regarding this verse,

“The Book of Allah, rather than thinking and contemplating about them, they turn away from them.” [11]

Imam Al Qurtubi رحمه الله writes regarding the verse,


Even though these people hear the ayaat of Allah سبحانه و تعالى, they do not contemplate and think over it rather they turn away from them.

أُولَـٰئِكَ كَالْأَنْعَامِ بَلْ هُمْ أَضَلُّ ۚ أُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْغَافِلُونَ

Mujahid رحمه الله said regarding this,

“(After mentioning the other characteristics) then he made their mention like the cattle then made them even worse than cattle and then finally mentioned that they are the heedless ones.”[12]

Imam Al Qurtubi رحمه الله says,

“Because they are not guided towards the rewards thus they are like cattle whose intention is to just eat and drink. But they (the people) are more misguided since the cattle can at least understand its benefit and harm and obeys its owner but they are even opposite of that. They forsake contemplation (of ayaat of Allah سبحانه و تعالى) and turn away from Paradise and Hell.”[13]

The benefit of the people lie in learning the ‘Aqeedah of Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama‘ah and fundamentals of Islam, but there are some heedless people who do not understand this importance of this and thus are more misguided that cattle who at least comprehend their benefit and loss whereas these people do not. Allah سبحانه و تعالى has named the Qur’an as Al Furqan which means a criterion that distinguishes between the Truth and falsehood. If this criterion is not recited and studied, then it is a great possibility one would fall into actions that are forbidden in the Shari‘ah of Rasul Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم as one of the poets said,

عَرَفْتُ شَرْ لَا لِشَرْ **** لَكِنْ تُلَا فِيْهِ

وَ مَنْ لَا يَعْرِفُ شَرْ**** جَدِيْر أَنْ يَقَعَ فِيْهِ

“I learned evil not to indulge in it,
rather to abstain from it,
and whoever does not know what evil is,
it is likely that he will fall into it.”

May Allah سبحانه و تعالى make us amongst those who benefit greatly from this ayah. Ameen

And Allah سبحانه و تعالى knows best.

[1] Surat Al A’raaf, ayah 179

[2] Tafsir Al Tabari

[3] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[4] Sahih Al Bukhari & Sahih Muslim

[5] Diseases of the Hearts and its Cure’ compiler’s foreword

[6] Tafsir Al Tabari

[7] Tafsir Al Qurtubi

[8] Fath Al Qadeer

[9] Tafsir Al Baghawi

[10] Tafasir Al Tabari, Al Qurtubi, Al Fayruzabadi, Fath Al Qadeer

[11] Tafasir Al Tabari, Tafsir Al Baghawi & Fath Al Qadeer [the last 2 Imams write , “The Book of Allah,” or its like not the rest]

[12] Tafsir Al Tabari

[13] Tafsir Al Qurtubi

Monday, 18 May,

Do you want two Gardens?

Posted in (55) Tafsīr Sūraħ Ar-Raḥmān tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , at 12:38 pm by Ibn al-Kashmiri

بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

الحمد الله

If your answer to the question is yes, then read what Allāh سبحانه و تعالى has to say about those who deserve two Gardens in Surat ar-Raḥmān,

وَلِمَنْ خَافَ مَقَامَ رَبِّهِ جَنَّتَانِ

“But for him who fears the standing before his Lord, there will be two Gardens (i.e. in Paradise).”[1]

Imām al-Māwardī رحمه الله writes three statements regarding this ayah,

“Firstly:  Whoever fears to stand before his Lord after the performance of the obligations said Ibn ‘Abbās

Secondly:   He is distressed with his sin and he leaves it as soon as he remembers his standing before his Lord said Mujāhid

Thirdly:  It was specifically revealed for Abū Bakr رضي الله عنه when he remembered a day the Paradise will be brought near and the Hell will be emerged said ‘Aṭā’ and Ibn Shudhab.”[2]

Ibn ‘Abbās رضي الله عنهما said,

“Feared then had Taqwa and the one who feared (khā’if); is the one who rode upon the obedience of Allāh and left His disobedience.”[3]

Ibrāhīm رحمه الله said,

“When he intends to commit a sin, the fear of Allāh overtakes him.”[4]

Qatādah رحمه الله said,

“Verily, the believers are fearful of the standing so they work for it, come close to it and worship by day and night (in preparation).”[5]

Abud Dardā’ رضي الله عنه said, that Rasūl Allāh صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

‘But for him who fears the standing before his Lord, there will be two Gardens (i.e. in Paradise).’ I said, ‘Even if he commits adultery/fornication and theft?’ He said, ‘In spite of if he commits adultery/fornication and theft, Abud Dardā’!”[6]

Muḥammad bin ‘Alī at-Tirmidhī رحمه الله said,

“Paradise is for the one who fears his Lord and Paradise is also for the one who forsakes his desires.”[7]

Imām athTh‘ālabī رحمه الله says,

“For everyone who fears (Allāh سبحانه و تعالى) are two Gardens (in Paradise)”[8]

مَقَامَ رَبِّهِ

Imām al-Māwardī رحمه الله says in tafsīr, “And regarding ‘standing before his Lord’, are two statements,

“Firstly: It is the standing in front of the examination and accountability.

Secondly:  It is the standing before Allāh تعالى with the numbers of what is acquired either of good or bad.”[9]


And in then he mentions many points regarding this word,

“Firstly:  Paradise of the humans and the Paradise of the Jinns said Mujāhid

Secondly:  The inhabitable Paradise (‘Adn) and the Paradise of delights (Na‘īm) said Muqātil

Thirdly:  They will be two orchards from the orchards of Paradise

Fourthly:  One of the Gardens will be his station and the other one will be his wives’ and servants’ station just as the leaders in the world do.

Fifth supporting point:  One of the two Gardens will be his residence and the other will be his orchard

And sixth supporting point: One of the two Gardens will be the low palaces and the other will be the higher ones.”[10]

[1] Surat ar-Raḥmān, 55:46

[2] An-Nakat wal-‘Uyūn

[3] Jām‘i al-Bayān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān

[4] Ibid

[5] Ibid

[6] Ibid

[7] Jām‘i li-Aḥkām al-Qur’ān

[8] Jawāhir al-assān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān

[9] An-Nakat wal-‘Uyūn

[10] Ibid

Saturday, 16 May,

Want to be Successful?

Posted in (03) Tafsīr Sūraħ `Al 'Imrān tagged , , , , at 12:06 pm by Ibn al-Kashmiri

بسم الله الرحمان الحيم

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

الحمد الله

All Praise is due to Allah سبحانه و تعالى. May Peace and Blessings be upon Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم, his progeny, his companions and those who befriended him رضي الله عنهم.

It would unreasonable that Allah سبحانه و تعالى will tell us about Jannah and not tell us how to get to it. And it would be impossible that Allah سبحانه و تعالى will inform us about Jahannam and not tell us how to escape it. Thus, He سبحانه و تعالى has said in a beautiful verse,

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اصْبِرُوا وَصَابِرُوا وَرَابِطُوا وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

“O you who believe! Endure and be more patient, and do Ribaat and have Taqwa of Allah, so that you may be successful.[1]

‘A’ishah رضي الله عنها says, “Whenever an ayah starts with ‘O’ you who believe’ then bring forth your ear to listen to it carefully.”

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اصْبِرُوا وَصَابِرُوا وَرَابِطُوا وَاتَّقُوا

The interpreters of the Qur`an have differed on the meaning of this ayah. Some have said “That means: Endure with your religion, be more patient with the disbelievers and do Ribaat against them.”[2]

Qatadah  رحمه الله says,

“It is the forbearance on the obedience of Allah سبحانه و تعالى, being patient with the people of misguidance and guard the borderlines in the Path of Allah سبحانه و تعالى.”[3]

Muhammad bin Ka‘b AlQuradhi رحمه الله has said about this ayah,

“Endure with your religion, be patient with the Promise that you have been Promised with and do Ribaat against your enemies until they leave their religion to follow yours.”[4]

Others have said something similar but with the only difference that it means, “Carry on with Jihaad.” [5]

Al Hasan Al Basri رحمه الله said, “The believers are commanded to be patient in the religion that Allah chose for them, Islam. They are not allowed to abandon it in times of comfort or hardship, ease or calamity, until they die as Muslims. They are also commanded to endure against their enemies, those who hid the truth about their religion.” Similar explanation given by several other scholars among the Salaf.[6]

Meaning of being Patient with the Obedience and Religion of Allah سبحانه و تعالى:

Al Haafidh Ibn Al Qayyim رحمه الله says,

“Patience in worshipping Allâh سبحانه و تعالى and carrying out His instructions means that you perform the prescribed acts of worship regularly and do so sincerely and with knowledge. Worship that is not performed regularly is of no value. Even if worship is performed regularly, there are two dangers. Firstly, we risk losing our sincerity, if the motive for performing prayers is not to please Allâh سبحانه و تعالى and draw closer to Him. So to protect our worship we must make sure that we are sincere. Secondly, we must be sure never to deviate from the way of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم, so we have to ensure that our worship is done according to the Sunnah.”[7]

As have read in the quote above, patience in worship is make sure that one’s intention to do the act is for the sake of Allah سبحانه و تعالى or not and doing the action according to the Sunnah of RasuluLlah صلى الله عليه و سلم. This means we should not get frustrated with checking our intentions frequently in other words, being happy with Qadhaa’ wal Qadr. This includes the reaction of people and events that take place in one’s life as we learn from the following ayah,

يَا بُنَيَّ أَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ وَأْمُرْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَانْهَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَاصْبِرْ عَلَىٰ مَا أَصَابَكَ ۖ إِنَّ ذَ‌ٰلِكَ مِنْ عَزْمِ الْأُمُورِ

“O My son! Aqim­is­Salât (perform As­Salât), Enjoin (people) for Al­Ma’rûf (Islâmic Monotheism and All that is good), and forbid (people) from Al­Munkar (i.e. disbelief In the Oneness of Allâh, polytheism of All kinds and All that is evil and bad), and bear with patience whatever befall you. Verily! These are some of the important Commandments ordered by Allâh with no exemption.”[8]

Meaning of Ribaat:

As for Murabatah, it is to endure in acts of worship and perseverance. It also means to await prayer after prayer, as Ibn `Abbas, Sahl bin Hanif and Muhammad bin Ka‘b Al Quradhi رضي الله عنهم stated. [9]Abu Hurayrah رضي الله عنه that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

“Should I tell you about actions with which Allah forgives sins and raises the grade? Performing perfect ablution in unfavourable conditions, the many steps one takes to the Masajid, and awaiting prayer after the prayer, for this is the Ribaat, this is the Ribaat, this is the Ribaat.” [10]

They also say that the Murabatah in the above Ayah refers to battles against the enemy, and manning Muslim outposts to protect them from enemy incursions inside Muslim territory. There are several ahadith that encourage Murabatah and mention its rewards.[11] Sahl bin Sa‘d As-Sa‘idi رضي الله عنه said that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

“A Day of Ribaat in the cause of Allah is better than this life and all that is in it”[12]

Salman Al-Farisi رضي الله عنه said that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

Ribaat for a day and a night is better than fasting the days of a month and its Qiyaam (voluntary prayer at night). If one dies in Ribaat, his regular righteous deeds that he used to perform will keep being added to his account and he will receive his provision, and will be saved from the trials of the grave.”[13]

‘AbduLlah Ibn `Abbas رضي الله عنهما said that he heard the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم saying,

“Two eyes shall not be touched by the Fire: an eye that cried for fear from Allah and an eye that spent the night guarding in Allah’s cause.”[14]

And finally, Abu Hurayrah رضي الله عنه said that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

“Let the servant of the Dinar, the servant of the Dirham and the servant of the Khamisah (of clothes) perish, as he is pleased if these things are given to him, and if not, he is displeased. Let such a person perish and be humiliated, and if he is pierced with a thorn, let him not find anyone to take it out for him. Paradise is for him who holds the reins of his horse, striving in Allah’s cause, with his hair unkempt and feet covered with dust: if he is appointed to the vanguard, he is perfectly satisfied with his post of guarding, and if he is appointed in the rearguard, he accepts his post with satisfaction; if he asks for permission he is not permitted, and if he intercedes, his intercession is not accepted.”[15]

وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

This means have Taqwa of Allah سبحانه و تعالى O’ believers! And beware of opposing His Commands or exceeding His limits.

Muhammad bin Ka‘b Al Quradhi رحمه الله said regarding this verse, “Fear Me concerning what is between you and Me, so that you may acquire success when you meet Me tomorrow.” [16]

This is one of the ways to be successful Allah سبحانه و تعالى has talked about in Qur`an and indeed being successful does not mean achieving an engineering degree nor getting married rather it means being rewarded with Jannah and indeed Allah سبحانه و تعالى knows best

[1] Surat `Al-e-‘Imraan, 3:200

[2] Tafsir Al Tabari

[3] Ibid

[4] Ibid

[5] Ibid

[6] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[7] ‘Uddaat Al Saabireen wa Dhaakhirat Al Shakireen

[8] Surat Luqman, 31:17

[9] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[10] Ibn Abi Hatim, Sahih Muslim and Sunan An-Nasa’i

[11]Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[12] Sahih Al Bukhari

[13] Sahih Muslim

[14] Sunan Al Tirmidhi

[15] Sahih Al Bukhari

[16] Tafsir Al Tabari

Tuesday, 12 May,

A Collection of Tafsīr Surat Al Baqarah, Ayah #5

Posted in (02) Tafsīr Sūraħ Al Baqaraħ tagged , , , , , , , at 5:42 pm by Ibn al-Kashmiri

بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
الحمد الله

أُولَـٰئِكَ عَلَىٰ هُدًى مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ ۖ وَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ

“They are those on (true) guidance from their Lord, and they are the successful.”

There are two opinions regarding who this ayah is referred to:

1)      They are the believers amongst the ‘Arabs. [opinion of ‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas, ‘AbduLlah bin Mas’ud and a group of Sahabah رضي الله عنهم]

2)      They are the people of Scripture

Then Ibn Jarir AlTabari رحمه الله presented his opinion as a conclusion,

“In our view, the best interpretation is that reported from ‘AbduLlah bin Mas’ud and ‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas and that “They are those…”refers to both groups.” [1]


refers to those who believe in the Unseen, establish prayer, spend from what Allah سبحانه وتعالى provided them, prepare for the necessary requirements for the hereafter by performing good deeds and avoid the prohibitions. [2]

عَلَىٰ هُدًى مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ:

‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهما said, “Who proceed according to a light from their Lord and go straight forward according to what came to them.”[3]

Shaykh Muhammad  Saalih bin ‘Uthaymeen رحمه الله writes in his Tafsir,

“Their treading upon it like they are hurrying up on a clear and unambiguous path, they don’t have any doubt. You would see them accepting righteous deeds like a lamp in front find them, for example, looking in the secrets of the Shari’ah of Allah سبحانه وتعالى and its wisdom knowing from it which is hidden from most people. You would also find them experiencing AlQadhaa’ wa AlQadr as if they are witnessing the command in their favour even though they are being afflicted with something that is harming them or being of evil nature. They see that in their favour because Allah سبحانه وتعالى has indeed illuminated for them the path so they are guidance from their Lord. Guidance is like ride saving them from destruction or a ship salvaging them from drowning.”

مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ:

Their Creator, Planner of their affairs [4]

وَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ:

‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهما said, “It means those who attain what they seek and are delivered from the evil they flee.” [5]

Personal Comments:

Allah سبحانه و تعلى mentions this ayah right after giving a description of those who possess Taqwa. In those two ayahs, Allah سبحانه و تعلى summarises His Right upon His slaves which is to have belief in the Unseen and worship Him alone.  This ayah also discusses the etiquette we should have whilst dealing with Allah سبحانه و تعلى. Because of the belief in Allah سبحانه و تعلى whilst not having seen Him, a believer develops the concept of ihsaan in his worship, haya’ from Allah سبحانه و تعلى because he knows that his Lord is watching him. Belief in Qadr results in the believer having tawakkul in Him, submission and acceptance to His Will and an unconditional love for Him because the believer knows whatever He Wills is good for him. And also that everything was given to him by no other than Allah سبحانه و تعلى and this increases in his love for Him.

And thus we conclude from verse # 5 that the reward for people who fulfill the rights of Allah سبحانه و تعلى is guidance from Allah سبحانه و تعلى in this life and success (i.e. Paradise) in the hereafter.

Another point to note is that Allah سبحانه و تعالى mentioned His Rights very early on in the Qur’an which shows the great importance of them. In the near future we shall, insha’Allah, encounter ayaat that talk about rights of others and rights of oneself.  And indeed Allah سبحانه و تعالى knows best.

[1] Tafsir AlTabari

[2] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[3] Tafsir AlTabari

[4] Tafsir Ibn ‘Uthaymeen

[5] Tafsir AlTabari & Tafsir Ibn Kathir

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