Tuesday, 16 June,

Seeking the help of Allāh سبحانه و تعالى in Ṣabr & Ṣalāħ

Posted in (02) Tafsīr Sūraħ Al Baqaraħ, Articles in English tagged , , , , , , , , at 10:46 pm by Ibn al-Kashmiri

بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

الحمد الله

Allāh سبحانه و تعالى says,

وَاسْتَعِينُوا بِالصَّبْرِ وَالصَّلَاةِ ۚ وَإِنَّهَا لَكَبِيرَةٌ إِلَّا عَلَى الْخَاشِعِينَ ﴿٤٥﴾ الَّذِينَ يَظُنُّونَ أَنَّهُم مُّلَاقُو رَبِّهِمْ وَأَنَّهُمْ إِلَيْهِ رَاجِعُونَ ﴿٤٦﴾

“And seek help in patience and Aṣ-Ṣalāħ and truly it is extremely heavy and hard except for Al-Khashicīn. (45) (They are those) who are certain that they are going to meet their Lord, and that unto Him they are going to return. (46)[1]

وَاسْتَعِينُوا بِالصَّبْرِ

Al-Ḥāfidh Ibn Kathīr رحمه الله writes in his tafsīr,

“Allāh سبحانه و تعالى commanded His servants to use patience and prayer to acquire the good of this life and the Hereafter. Muqātil bin Ḥayyān رحمه الله said that this āyaħ means, ‘Utilize patience and the obligatory prayer in seeking the Hereafter.’ As for patience (here), they say that it means fasting. There are similar texts reported from Mujāhid رحمه الله.  Imām Al-Qurṭubī رحمه الله and other scholars commented, “This is why Ramaḍān is called the month of patience,” as is mentioned in the Ḥadīth literature. It was also said that “patience” in the āyaħ means, refraining from evil, and this is why “patience” was mentioned along with practicing acts of worship, especially and foremost, the prayer. Also, Ibn Abi Ḥātim رحمه الله narrated that cUmar bin Al-Khaṭṭāb رضي الله عنه said, “There are two types of patience: good patience when the disaster strikes and a better patience while avoiding the prohibitions of Allah.” Ibn Abi Ḥātim رحمه الله said that Imām Al-Ḥasan Al-Baṣrī رحمه الله was reported to have said similarly.”[2]

Imām al-Qurṭubī رحمه الله writes,

“The Exalted has commanded patience upon obedience and against its contrary in His Book and said, ‘Be patient!’ It was said that so-and-so was patient against sin and if he was patient against sin, then he was enduring upon the obedience. This is the most correct from what was said.”[3]

Al-Ḥāfidh Ibn al-Qayyim رحمه الله writes,

“Patience in worshipping Allāh سبحانه و تعالى and carrying out His instructions means that you perform the prescribed acts of worship regularly and do so sincerely and with knowledge. Worship that is not performed regularly is of no value. Even if worship is performed regularly, there are two dangers. Firstly, we risk losing our sincerity, if the motive for performing prayers is not to please Allāh سبحانه و تعالى and draw closer to Him. So to protect our worship we must make sure that we are sincere. Secondly, we must be sure never to deviate from the way of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم, so we have to ensure that our worship is done according to the Sunnaħ.”[4]

And under the title of ‘Patience in abstaining from wrong action,’ he رحمه الله writes,

“This type of patience can be achieved through the fear of the punishment which follows the wrong action, or through a feeling of ḥayā’ (shyness or shame) before Allāh سبحانه و تعالىfor using His blessings in committing wrong actions. That feeling of ḥayā’ before Allāh صلى الله عليه و سلم can be strengthened through learning more about Allāh سبحانه و تعالى and knowing more about His names and attributes. Ḥayā’ is a characteristic of people who are noble and possess good qualities, so the person who refrains from wrong action because of ḥayā’ is better than the one who abstains because of fear. Ḥayā’ indicates that a person is mindful of Allāhسبحانه و تعالى and His might. The person whose deterrent is the fear of Allāh سبحانه و تعالى has his thoughts focused on the punishment. The fearful person’s main concern is himself and how to save himself from the punishment, whereas the “shy” person’s main concern is Allāh سبحانه و تعالى and His Glory. Both have attained the status of īmān, but the “shy” person has attained iḥsān, a higher status of īmān, in which he conducts himself as if he can see Allāh سبحانه و تعالى , and so his heart is filled with ḥayā’.

The reason why it is so important for a believer to abstain from wrong action is because he must protect his īmān, as wrong action decreases īmān or extinguishes it. The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

‘When the adulterer commits adultery he is not a believer, and when the winebibber drinks alcohol he is not a believer and when the thief steals he is not a believer.’

The believer should abstain from many permitted actions in case they may lead to that which is forbidden.”[5]

Personal Comments:

When a person is afflicted by any calamity, he must exercise ṣabr. And it is the only thing one can do as he has no power of what ever happening. But, when a person is blessed by Allāh سبحانه و تعالى, he must also exercise ṣabr at that time. And this type of ṣabr is better than the one mentioned earlier as it truly shows the servitude to Allāh سبحانه و تعالى.  This is the ṣabr of shukr. And shukr can be shown in to ways:

a)      By being steadfast and patient on the obedience of Allāh سبحانه و تعالى

b)      By being enduring against the disobedience of Allāh سبحانه و تعالى

This must also be done during times of difficulty as they are times of testing and a means by which Allāh سبحانه و تعالى forgives His servants. And, of course, we can not achieve any of this except if Allāh سبحانه و تعالى has mercy upon us.


CAbd Allāh bin CAbbās رضي الله عنهما was confronted with the news of his brother, Quthām رضي الله عنه, whilst he was travelling and he said,

We are Allāh’s and to Him we return.’ Then he turned aside from the road, dismounted, and prayed two units of prayer, in which he extended the period of sitting. Then he stood up and walked to his mount, and said, ‘And seek help in patience and Aṣ-Ṣalāħ and truly it is extremely heavy and hard except for Al-Khashicīn.’ [6]

Abul cĀliyaħ رحمه الله said,

“(Allāh سبحانه و تعالى) means: Seek help from patience and prayer in trying to please Allāh سبحانه و تعالى, and know that these part of obedience to Allāh سبحانه و تعالى.”[7]

Ibn Jurayj رحمه الله said,

“‘Seek help in patience and prayer…’ these are helps towards Allāh سبحانه و تعالى’s mercy.”[8]

Ibn Zayd رحمه الله said,

“The polytheists said, ‘By Allāh, Muḥammad, you summon us to something arduous!’ He said, ‘To prayer and faith in Allāh سبحانه و تعالى.’”[9]

Ḥudhayfaħ رضي الله عنه said,

“If the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم was afflicted with some (difficult) situation, he would seek protection in Ṣalāħ.” [10]

Personal Comments:

As we see the ḥadīth that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم used to find comfort and peace in Ṣalāħ unlike us who feel agitated whilst offering two,  short units.

Question: Why did Allāh سبحانه و تعالى command us to seek help in Ṣalāħ in times of difficulty?

Answer: We were commanded to do so because if a believer stands up to pray, with correct intention following the Sunnaħ, then he will, no doubt (Allāh سبحانه و تعالى Willing of course) feel serene and calm during the prayer. He will forget all his difficulties and problems when he knows that his Lord will protect and give him the answer to his situation as Allāh سبحانه و تعالى says,  “And whosoever fears Allāh and keeps his duty to Him, He will make a way for him to get out (from every difficulty).[11]

وَإِنَّهَا لَكَبِيرَةٌ إِلَّا عَلَى الْخَاشِعِينَ

Imām al-Māwardī رحمه الله writes in his tafsīr three points regarding this āyaħ,

First: meaning: that, verily Aṣ-Ṣalāħ is indeed heavy except upon the believers

Second: meaning Aṣ-Ṣabr and Aṣ-Ṣalāħ and the euphemism is relating to Aṣ-Ṣalāħ because it is the closest one to be referred to.

Third: that indeed the answer to the call of Muḥammad صلى الله عليه و سلم is difficult except for Al-Khashicīn.

And Al-Khushūc with Allāh سبحانه و تعالى is humility and similar to it is submission. And it was said, ‘Verily the submissiveness is in the body and humility is in voice and sight.’”[12]

Qatādaħ رحمه الله says,

“Al-Khushūc is in the heart and that is the fear (khawf) and lowering of the gaze in the Ṣalāħ.”[13]

Az-Zajjāj رحمه الله says,

“The Khāshīc (the one who has Khushūc)is the one upon whom the signs of humility and Khushūc can be seen.”[14]

Sufyān athThawrī رحمه الله said,

“I asked al-Acmash regarding Al- Khushūc and he said, ‘O’ Thawrī, you want to be the leader of the people and you do not know what Al- Khushūc is? I asked Ibrāhīm an-Nakhacī regarding Al- Khushūc and he said, ‘O’ Acmash, you want to be the leader of the people and you do not know what Al- Khushūc is? Al- Khushūc is not to eat foods of low quality nor wear rough clothes nor is it that you lower the head. Rather, Al- Khushūc is that you see nobility and lowliness (in humility) in the truth alike. And fear Allāh سبحانه و تعالى in all the obligations He has obliged upon you.’”[15]

cAlī bin Abī Ṭālib رضي الله عنه said,

“Al- Khushūc is in the heart, that you soften your hands (when shaking) for a Muslim man and not turning in prayer.”[16]

Imām al-Qurṭubī رحمه الله then says in his own words,

“This the praiseworthy khushūc, because if the fear dwells in the heart, the outer khushūc is necessitated and you see him down to earth, well mannered and humbled. And the predecessors (Salaf aṣ-Ṣāliḥ) used to strive in hiding what became apparent from that. And as for the vilified (khushūc), is the posing , crying and the lowering of the head like the ignorant people do to be seen with eyes of righteousness and dignity and that is the deception from the shayṭān and enticement (to evil) by the inner self of the human.”[17]

It is known that when cUmar رضي الله عنه used to speak, he was clearly heard, when he used to walk, he used to walk fast and when he used to strike, it would be painful. But, even then he was a true ascetic and fearful of Allāh.

Mujāhid رحمه الله said,

“Verily the khashicīn are true believers.”[18]

Personal Comments:

1)      Submissiveness in the body is to surrender one’s limbs in the obedience to Allāh سبحانه و تعالى and staying away from His disobedience.

2)      Humility is found deeply rooted in the heart which makes a person submit his body and soul to his Creator. It makes him have concentration in his worship,  have good Akhlāq and Ādāb whilst dealing with others and treat oneself properly. It makes him lower his voice and sight in ḥayā’ to Allāh سبحانه و تعالى in private and public. It is because of Khushūc that a person achieves the level of Imān and Iḥsān.

3)      Khushūc is found in the heart and not in outward appearance of limbs. The real Khushūc is which shows the signs of humility. Merely, crying or lowering one’s head doesn’t necessitate a person having Khushūc. Similarly, shabby clothes and eating poor food is also not always a sign of humility.

4)      Khushūc does not mean a person becomes lazy or unmanly rather it is as we have read about cUmar رضي الله عنه and even the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم use to be man when walking, it would seem that he was descending from a high place, when he would speak, words would could be counted on fingers,  his blessed glance would be on the ground rather than up and he was a perfect man.

الَّذِينَ يَظُنُّونَ

Abul cĀliyaħ رحمه الله said,

“Ẓann here means certainty.”[19]

Mujāhid رحمه الله said,

“Every ẓann in the Qur’ān means certainty…”[20]

أَنَّهُم مُّلَاقُو رَبِّهِمْ

Imām Aṭ-Ṭabarī رحمه الله writes,

“Allāh سبحانه و تعالى stated that prayer is arduous except for those who have this attribute, because whoever is not certain of the life to come and does not believe in the Return and in reward and punishment, finds prayer a hardship and vain effort, for he does not anticipate that by performing it he will see any benefit or repel any harm. Anyone who has this attribute is apt to find the prayer arduous, and he will find its performance a burden and a load, but it will seem light to those who believe in the truth of meeting with Allāh سبحانه و تعالى, who hope for His abundant reward for it, who fear His painful punishment for neglecting it, since they hope that by performing it they will attain, in the life t come, what Allāh سبحانه و تعالى has promised those who perform it, and are on their guard against what He has threatened for those who neglect it.” [21]

وَأَنَّهُمْ إِلَيْهِ رَاجِعُونَ

Abul cĀliyaħ رحمه الله said,

“They are certain that they will return to Him on the Day of the Resurrection.”[22]

Second opinion: Others said that it means that they will return to Him when they die[23]

Imām Aṭ-Ṭabarī رحمه الله concludes by siding with the opinion of Abul cĀliyaħ رحمه الله and mentions that this opinion is more likely to be correct because of the preceding ayaħ, “How do you disbelieve in Allāh,  seeing you were dead… then unto Him are you returned?”

Personal Comments:

Having Khushūc also means that one is in remembrance of the after life and knows that a Day will come when he will stand before his Lord.  And this feeling makes his prayer much easier upon him unlike the hypocrites who stand up for prayer with laziness, trying to show off their prayer.

And indeed, Allāh سبحانه و تعالى knows best.

[1]Sūraħ al-Baqaraħ, 2:45-6

[2] Tafsīr al-Qur’ān al-Karīm

[3] Jāmic li Aḥkām al-Qur’ān

[4] cUddaħ aṣ-Ṣābirīn wa Dhakhīraħ ashShākirīn

[5] Ibid

[6] Jāmic al-Bayān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān

[7] Ibid

[8] Ibid

[9] Ibid

[10] cUmdaħ at-Tafsīr [Ṣaḥīḥ]

[11] Sūraħ aṭ-Ṭalāq, 65:2

[12] An-Nakat wal-cUyūn

[13] Jāmic li Aḥkām al-Qur’ān

[14] Ibid

[15] Ibid


[17] Ibid

[18] Ibid

[19] Jāmic al-Bayān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān

[20] Ibid

[21] Ibid

[22] Ibid

[23] Ibid

Sunday, 14 June,

Were Harūt and Marūt Angels or Kings?

Posted in (02) Tafsīr Sūraħ Al Baqaraħ, Articles in English, Sciences of Qira'āħ (Qur'ānic Recitations) tagged , , , , , , , , , , , at 7:51 pm by Ibn al-Kashmiri

بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

الحمد الله

Allāh سبحانه و تعالى tells us,

وَاتَّبَعُوا مَا تَتْلُو الشَّيَاطِينُ عَلَىٰ مُلْكِ سُلَيْمَانَ ۖ وَمَا كَفَرَ سُلَيْمَانُ وَلَـٰكِنَّ الشَّيَاطِينَ كَفَرُوا يُعَلِّمُونَ النَّاسَ السِّحْرَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ عَلَى الْمَلَكَيْنِ بِبَابِلَ هَارُوتَ وَمَارُوتَ ۚ وَمَا يُعَلِّمَانِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ حَتَّىٰ يَقُولَا إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ فِتْنَةٌ فَلَا تَكْفُرْ ۖ فَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مِنْهُمَا مَا يُفَرِّقُونَ بِهِ بَيْنَ الْمَرْءِ وَزَوْجِهِ ۚ وَمَا هُم بِضَارِّينَ بِهِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۚ

“They followed what the Shayāṭīn (devils) gave out (falsely of the magic) in the lifetime of Sulaymān (Solomon). Sulaymān did not disbelieve, but the Shayāṭīn (devils) disbelieved, teaching men magic and such things that came down at Babylon to the two angels, Hārūt and Mārūt, but neither of these two (angels) taught anyone (such things) till they had said, “We are only for trial, so disbelieve not (by learning this magic from us).” And from these (angels) people learn that by which they cause separation between man and his wife, but they could not thus harm anyone except by Allāh’s Leave…”[1]

The word Allāh سبحانه و تعالى has used to mention about the Hārūt and Mārūt is الْمَلَكَيْنِ. The root of this word is مَلَكَ which means an Angel.  But, Imām al-Baghawī رحمه الله mentions in his tafsīr that cAbdullāh bin cAbbās رضي الله عنهما, Al-Ḥasan رحمه الله and Imām Fakhrud-Dīn ar-Rāzī رحمه الله mentions that aḍ-Ḍaḥḥāk رحمه الله used to recite the word as الْمَلِكَيْنِ [2]whose root is مَلِكَ with a kasraħ on lām rather than fatḥaħ.  This fact is also mentioned in Tafsīr al-Kashshāf by Imām az-Zamakhsharī

One might wonder, the Qur’ān is in different recitations? The answer to this question is yes, it has reached to us in ten different but authentic Qiracāħ. Before we study the variant recitation of the verse, lets give a brief introduction to the different Qiracāħ of the Qur’ān.

A Qiracāħ is, for the most part, a method of pronunciation used in the recitations of the Qur’ān. These methods are different from the seven forms or modes (ḥurūf) in which the Qur’ān was revealed. The seven modes were reduced to one, that of Quraysh, during the era of Caliph cUthmān رضي الله عنه when he ordered that the Qur’ān be copied in the Qurayshī dialect and distributed among the Islāmic centers of the time. Hence, only the Qurayshī mode remains today and all of the methods of recitation are based on this mode. The various methods have all been traced back to the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم through a number of the Ṣaḥābaħ رضي الله عنهما who were most noted for their Qur’ānic recitations. That is, these Ṣaḥābaħ رضي الله عنهما recited the Qur’ān to the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم or in his presence and received his approval. Among them were the following: Ubayy ibn Kacb, cAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib, Zayd ibn Thābit, Ibn Mascūd, Abū ad-Dardā’, and Abū Mūsa al-Ashcarī رضي الله عنهما. Many of the other Ṣaḥābaħ رضي الله عنهما learned from these masters. cAbdullāh Ibn cAbbās رضي الله عنهما, the master commentator of the Qur’ān among the Ṣaḥābaħ رضي الله عنهما, learned from both Ubayy and Zayd رضي الله عنهما. [3]

Among the next generation of Muslims, referred to as the Tabicūn there arose many scholars who learned the various methods of recitation from the Ṣaḥābaħ رضي الله عنهما and taught them to others. Centers of Qur’ānic recitation developed in Madīnaħ, Makkaħ, Kūfaħ, Baṣraħ, and ashShām (Greater Syria), leading to the evolution of Qur’ānic recitation into an independent science.[4] By the mid eighth century CE, there existed a large number of outstanding scholars, all of whom were considered specialists in the field of recitation. Most of their methods of recitation were authenticated by chains of reliable narrators, ending with the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم. Those methods on each level of their chain were called Mutawātir and were considered to be the most accurate. Those methods in which the number of narrators were few or one on any level of the chain were referred to as Shādh.

However, some of the scholars of the following period began the practice of designating a set number of individual scholars from the previous period as being the most noteworthy and accurate reciters. By the middle of the tenth century CE (6th century AH), it became a popular convention to limit the number of best reciters to seven, since this number coincided with the number of ḥurūf in which the Qur’ān was revealed.

Similarly, during this period the number of schools of Islāmic law (Madhhab) were reduced to the famous four after a period in which there were many. The first to limit the number of authentic reciters to seven was the cIrāqī scholar, Abū Bakr ibn Mujāhid رحمه الله (d. 936 CE), and those who wrote books on Qiracāħ after him followed suit.[5] This limitation is not an accurate representation of the classical scholars of Qur’ānic recitation. There were many others who were as good as the seven and a number who were greater than them. In fact, the classification of scholars was really a classification of how well their methods of recitation were preserved. Hence, the famous seven were those early scholars from different generations whose methods of recitation had the most chains of narrators with many narrations on each level of the chain. However, there were other classical scholars whose methods of recitation were just as authentically (Mutawātir) recorded as the famous seven. A list of the ten scholars of Qur’ānic recitation whose methods were best preserved is as follows:

1. Abū cAmr ibn al-cAlā (d. 771 CE/154 AH) of Baṣraħ

2. Ibn Kathīr (d. 738 CE/119 AH) was among the students of the Ṣaḥābaħ رضي الله عنهما of Makkaħ.

3. Nāfic (d. 786 CE/169 AH) was originally from Iṣfahān, and his recitation, as transmitted by Warsh (d. 812 CE/196 AH), was of Madīnaħ.

4. Ibn cĀmir (d. 737 CE/118 AH) was the chief judge (Qāḍī) of Damascus during the reign of al-Walīd ibn cAbdul Mālik, who, along with the other Umayyad caliphs, made that city his capital.

5. cĀṣim (d. 746 CE/128 AH) of Kūfaħ was the narrator of the dominant recitation in current use. His narration, as transmitted by Ḥafṣ, is the most common method of narration used in the Muslim world today with the exception of Africa.

6. Ḥamzaħ (d. 773 CE/156 AH) of Kūfaħ.

7. Al-Kisā’ī (d. 805 CE/189 AH) of Kūfaħ was one of the foremost grammarians. He played a major role in the formulation of Arabic grammar rules.

8.  Abū Jacfar (d. 750 CE/132 AH) of Madīnaħ.

9. Yacqūb (d. 820 CE/204 AH) of Baṣraħ.

10. Khalaf (d. 844 CE/229 AH) of Baghdād رحمهم الله

At the same time that scholars of ḥadīth laid down conditions to determine the authenticity of statements or actions attributed to the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم, scholars of Qur’ānic recitation also formulated conditions to facilitate critical analysis of the existing recitations. For any given recitation to be accepted as authentic (Ṣaḥīḥ), it had to fulfill three conditions. If any of the conditions were missing, such a recitation was classified as Shādh (unusual). The first condition was that the recitation have an authentic chain of narration; that is, that the chain of narrators had to be unbroken, that the narrators were known to be righteous, and that they were known to possess good memories. It was also required that the recitation be conveyed by a large number of narrators on each level of the chain of narration below the level of the Ṣaḥābaħ رضي الله عنهما (the condition of Tawātur). Narrations which had authentic chains but lacked the condition of Tawātur were accepted as explanations (Tafsīr) of Ṣaḥābaħ رضي الله عنهما, but were not considered as methods of reciting the Qur’ān. As for narrations which did not even have an authentic chain of narration, they were classified “bāṭil” (false) and rejected totally.

The second condition was that the recitations’ variations match known Arabic grammatical constructions. Unusual constructions were verified by their existence in passages of pre-Islamic prose or poetry.

The third condition required the recitation to coincide with the script of one of the copies of Qur’ān distributed during the era of Caliph cUthmān رضي الله عنه. Hence, differences which result from dot placement (e.g. taclamūn and yaclamūn) are considered acceptable, provided the other conditions are met. If no support for an unusual condition could be found, the recitation of that construction would be classified Shādh. [6]

This classification did not mean that all aspects of the recitation were considered Shādh; in fact, none of the accepted ten methods are totally free from some Shādh constructions. Shādh narrations of this type also serve as explanations for the authentic narrations, as they are obviously statements of the Ṣaḥābaħ رضي الله عنهما.

Now back to the issue of variant recitation.  The answer to this question is that it is an odd recitation that has was rejected by Imām Aṭ-Ṭabarī رحمه الله although it was transmitted in authentic chain from cAbdullāh bin cAbbās رضي الله عنهما. This recitation is both Shadhaħ and Mashhuraħ at the same time as it is a recitation that that is according to Arabic language and match the writings of the cUthmānī script written words that comes in authentic chain but did not reach level of Tawātur.  And, it is not one of the ten famous Qiracāħ that are known famously. This ayaħ’s tafsīr been disputed by the scholars of the past so it is not possible to say which of the tafsīrs is stronger. And indeed, Allāh سبحانه و تعالى knows best.

[1] Sūraħ al-Baqaraħ, 2:102

[2] Mcālim at-Tanzīl

[3] Al-Itqān

[4] Ibid

[5] Ibid

[6] Ibid

Tuesday, 12 May,

A Collection of Tafsīr Surat Al Baqarah, Ayah #5

Posted in (02) Tafsīr Sūraħ Al Baqaraħ tagged , , , , , , , at 5:42 pm by Ibn al-Kashmiri

بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
الحمد الله

أُولَـٰئِكَ عَلَىٰ هُدًى مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ ۖ وَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ

“They are those on (true) guidance from their Lord, and they are the successful.”

There are two opinions regarding who this ayah is referred to:

1)      They are the believers amongst the ‘Arabs. [opinion of ‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas, ‘AbduLlah bin Mas’ud and a group of Sahabah رضي الله عنهم]

2)      They are the people of Scripture

Then Ibn Jarir AlTabari رحمه الله presented his opinion as a conclusion,

“In our view, the best interpretation is that reported from ‘AbduLlah bin Mas’ud and ‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas and that “They are those…”refers to both groups.” [1]


refers to those who believe in the Unseen, establish prayer, spend from what Allah سبحانه وتعالى provided them, prepare for the necessary requirements for the hereafter by performing good deeds and avoid the prohibitions. [2]

عَلَىٰ هُدًى مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ:

‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهما said, “Who proceed according to a light from their Lord and go straight forward according to what came to them.”[3]

Shaykh Muhammad  Saalih bin ‘Uthaymeen رحمه الله writes in his Tafsir,

“Their treading upon it like they are hurrying up on a clear and unambiguous path, they don’t have any doubt. You would see them accepting righteous deeds like a lamp in front find them, for example, looking in the secrets of the Shari’ah of Allah سبحانه وتعالى and its wisdom knowing from it which is hidden from most people. You would also find them experiencing AlQadhaa’ wa AlQadr as if they are witnessing the command in their favour even though they are being afflicted with something that is harming them or being of evil nature. They see that in their favour because Allah سبحانه وتعالى has indeed illuminated for them the path so they are guidance from their Lord. Guidance is like ride saving them from destruction or a ship salvaging them from drowning.”

مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ:

Their Creator, Planner of their affairs [4]

وَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ:

‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهما said, “It means those who attain what they seek and are delivered from the evil they flee.” [5]

Personal Comments:

Allah سبحانه و تعلى mentions this ayah right after giving a description of those who possess Taqwa. In those two ayahs, Allah سبحانه و تعلى summarises His Right upon His slaves which is to have belief in the Unseen and worship Him alone.  This ayah also discusses the etiquette we should have whilst dealing with Allah سبحانه و تعلى. Because of the belief in Allah سبحانه و تعلى whilst not having seen Him, a believer develops the concept of ihsaan in his worship, haya’ from Allah سبحانه و تعلى because he knows that his Lord is watching him. Belief in Qadr results in the believer having tawakkul in Him, submission and acceptance to His Will and an unconditional love for Him because the believer knows whatever He Wills is good for him. And also that everything was given to him by no other than Allah سبحانه و تعلى and this increases in his love for Him.

And thus we conclude from verse # 5 that the reward for people who fulfill the rights of Allah سبحانه و تعلى is guidance from Allah سبحانه و تعلى in this life and success (i.e. Paradise) in the hereafter.

Another point to note is that Allah سبحانه و تعالى mentioned His Rights very early on in the Qur’an which shows the great importance of them. In the near future we shall, insha’Allah, encounter ayaat that talk about rights of others and rights of oneself.  And indeed Allah سبحانه و تعالى knows best.

[1] Tafsir AlTabari

[2] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[3] Tafsir AlTabari

[4] Tafsir Ibn ‘Uthaymeen

[5] Tafsir AlTabari & Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Friday, 1 May,

A Collection of Tafsīr Surat Al Baqarah, Ayah #4

Posted in (02) Tafsīr Sūraħ Al Baqaraħ tagged , , , , , at 12:32 am by Ibn al-Kashmiri

بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
الحمد الله

Ayah 4:

وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ وَبِالْآخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ

“And who believe in which has been sent down (to you) and in which were sent down before you and they believe with certainty in the Hereafter.”

وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ:

There are two opinions regarding who this phrase is referred to:

1)      They are the believers from people of Scripture [opinion of ‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas, ‘AbduLlah bin Mas’ud and a group of companions رضي الله عنهم ] [1]

2)      They believe in what Allah سبحانه وتعالى sent you (Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم) with and in previous Messengers and they do not distinguish between them, nor do they reject what they brought from their Lord. [opinion of Ibn Kathir رحمه الله] [2]

The stronger and most correct opinion if of the Sahabah رضي الله عنهم

أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ is the Qur`an[3]

وَبِالْآخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ:

There are two reasons why the hereafter is called the آخِرَةِ:

1)      Because it is preceded by this dunya

2)      Because of its deferment (ta’akhkhur) after creation just as this world is called the dunya because of its proximity (dunoow) to the creation. [4]


It means:

1)      Resurrection

2)      Paradise

3)      Hell

4)      Reckoning

5)      Weighing of good and bad deeds [5]

يُوقِنُونَ means belief without any doubt [6]

[1] Tafsir AlTabari

[2] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[3] Tafsir AlQurtubi

[4] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[5] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[6] Tafsir AlQurtubi

A Collection of Tafsīr Surat Al Baqarah, Ayah #3

Posted in (02) Tafsīr Sūraħ Al Baqaraħ tagged , , , , , , at 12:24 am by Ibn al-Kashmiri

بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
الحمد الله

Ayah 3:

الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ

“Who believe in the Ghaib and perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), and spend out of what we have provided for them”

الَّذِينَ is used for the Muttaqeen

الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ :

‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهما said, “They attest to its truth.”

‘AbduLlah bin Mas’ud رضي الله عنه said, “Belief is attesting to the truth.”

Al Rabi’ رحمه الله said, “Those who fear.”

AlZuhri رحمه الله said, “Belief is action.” [1]

الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ

There are three opinions regarding to whom Allah سبحانه وتعالى is referring in this ayah:

1)      These are ‘Arabs (former mushrikeen) who believed in the Unseen. [Opinion of ‘AbduLlah Ibn Mas’ud, ‘AbduLlah ibn ‘Abbas and a group of Sahabah]

2)       The ayaat 2:2-5 are talking about Ahl AlKitaab

3)      This ayah and the other 3 ayaat are talking about Arabs and non-‘Arabs, People of Scripture and others.

Then Ibn Jarir AlTabari رحمه الله goes onto mention his the opinion he thinks is to be the most correct one by saying,

“In my view, the opinion most likely to be correct, and the most suitable for the interpretation of the Book, is the first, that those whom Allah سبحانه و تعالى described as believing in the Unseen… are not those whom He described as believing in what was sent down to Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم and what was sent down to Messengers before him. They justified their opinion by using the ayah that follows these two verses, “And who believe in which has been sent down to you and in which were sent down before you.” They said that the Arabs had no scripture whose truth they professed, which they acknowledged, and according to which they acted, before the Book which Allah سبحانه و تعالى sent down to Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم. “[2]


‘AbduLlah bin Mas’ud, ‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas and a group of Sahabah رضي الله عنهم said,” What is concealed from the servants of the affair of Jannah and Jahannam, and what Allah سبحانه و تعالى has mentioned in the Qur`an.”

Zirr رحمه الله said, “The Unseen is the Qur`an”

AlRabi’ bin Anas رحمه الله said, “They believe in Allah, His Angels, His Messengers, and the Last Day, His Jannah and Jahannam, and in the Meeting with Him. They believe in the life after death. All of this is Unseen.”

وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ:

‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهما said, “The performance of the Salah is all the ruku’ (bowing), sujud (prostrating), tilaawah (recitation), khushu’ (humility and submission) and iqbaal (attentiveness) to it.” [3]

AlQurtubi رحمه الله said, “Praying with its arkaan (pillars), sunan, and on its prescribed time.”[4]

Establishing means not just praying alone rather setting up the environment of Salah and praying in congregation.


This means spending neither in extravagance nor being a miser but in between as Allah سبحانه و تعالى has said,

وَالَّذِينَ إِذَا أَنفَقُوا لَمْ يُسْرِفُوا وَلَمْ يَقْتُرُوا وَكَانَ بَيْنَ ذَ‌ٰلِكَ قَوَامًا

“And those, who, when they spend, are neither extravagant nor niggardly, but hold a medium (way) between those (extremes).” [5]

It should be spent on:

يَسْأَلُونَكَ مَاذَا يُنفِقُونَ ۖ قُلْ مَا أَنفَقْتُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍ فَلِلْوَالِدَيْنِ وَالْأَقْرَبِينَ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ ۗ وَمَا تَفْعَلُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ بِهِ عَلِيمٌ

“They ask you (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم) what they should spend. Say: Whatever you spend of good must be for parents and kindred and orphans and AlMasakin and the wayfarers, and whatever you do of good deeds, truly, Allah knows it well.” [6][7]

وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ:

There are two opinions regarding the meaning of what Allah سبحانه و تعالى has mentioned,”…spend out…

1)      ‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهما said,” They give zakah, thereby seeking the reward of the Hereafter.”

2)      ‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas, ‘AbduLlah bin Mas’ud and a group of Sahabah رضي الله عنهم said, “It is a man’s expenditure on his family. This was what it meant before the obligations of zakah were revealed.”‘

Ibn Jarir AlTabari رحمه الله concludes by saying,

“The best interpretation of the verse, the most appropriate to the description of these people, is that they disbursed all that they had to from their possessions, whether it was zakah or necessary expenditure for any relatives, dependants or others for whom they were obliged to lay out expenditure for drawing near (to Allah سبحانه و تعالى), for (securing) property, or whatever…”[8]

[1] Tafsir AlTabari

[2] Tafsir AlTabari

[3] Tafsir AlTabari

[4] Tafsir AlQurtubi

[5] Qur`an AlKareem {25:67}

[6] Qur`an AlKareem {2:215}

[7] Adhwaa’ AlBayaan fee Idhaah AlQur`an bil Qur`an

[8] Tafsir AlTabari

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