Thursday, 30 April,

A Collection of Tafsīr Surat Al Baqarah, Ayah #2

Posted in (02) Tafsīr Sūraħ Al Baqaraħ tagged , , , , , , at 11:21 pm by Ibn Abi Ukhti

بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
الحمد الله

Ayah 2:

ذَٰلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لَا رَيْبَ ۛ فِيهِ ۛ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ


“This is the Book (the Qur’an), whereof there is no doubt, a guidance to those who are Al-Muttaqun.”

The word ذَٰلِكَ literally means that but it is understood as ‘this.’ There three opinions on why هَذَا is not used:

1)”This is possible because whatever has just been mentioned is referred to again is like something present to the person addressed, even though it may mean something which is not present. … It is thus with <<dhalika ‘l-kitab>>, because He, exalted is His remembrance, preceded <<dhalika ‘l-kitab>> with <<alif-lam-mim>> whose freedom in its various aspects to take on the kind of meanings we described has been mentioned – and then He said to His Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم: “O’ Muhammad, this, which I have mentioned and made clear to you, is the Book.” Therefore, it was proper to put dhalik in place of hadha, because it indicates a reference to the meanings included in His saying <<alif-lam-mim>>. Since reference to it has just been made, it becomes like something present to the one it was pointed out to, so He referred to it by dhalik because of its having just been mentioned…”  [1]

2)”It is also possible that His words <<This is the Book>> mean the Surahs which He sent down before the Surah of the Cow in both Makkah and Madinah. It is as if He were saying to His Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم: “O’ Muhammad, whatever is contained in the Surahs which I have sent down to you is the Book in which there is no doubt.” Then the exegetes interpret it, giving dhalika the meaning, “This is the Book”, since these Surahs which were sent down before the Surah of Cow form the part of this whole Book of ours which Allah سبحانه و تعالى sent down to His Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم ”  [2]

3)”That the Arabs sometimes referred to something that was close with the distant demonstrative, so this verse was merely employing the conventions of the language. This opinion was related by AlBukhari رحمه اللهfrom Mu’mar bin AlMuthnaa Abu Ubaydah رحمه اللهas stated by Ibn Kathir رحمه الله[3]

الْكِتَابُ is the Qur`an

لَا رَيْبَ فِيهِ means:

1)There is no doubt in the Book[4]

2)It is used as a warning, “Do not doubt the Qur`an.” [5]

رَيْبَ has 3 meanings:

1)Doubt: what ignorant people say because they don’t exactly know

2)Suspicion: if something is authentic or nor

3)Deficiency: is something is lacking some important aspect[6]

هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ:

Guidance is an attribute of the Qur`an [7]
‘AbduLlah Ibn ‘Abbas and ‘AbduLlah Ibn Mas’ud رضي الله عنهم have said regarding this phrase, “Light for the Muttaqeen.” [8]
From this part of the ayah we understand many aspects of guidance:
1)Guidance is an attribute of Qur`an [9]

2)It is the type of guidance that when a person is blessed with he/she then conforms with AlIslam not like those who were given irshaad (guidance given by a person) but rejected it as Allah سبحانه وتعالى has said,

وَأَمَّا ثَمُودُ فَهَدَيْنَاهُمْ فَاسْتَحَبُّوا الْعَمَىٰ عَلَى الْهُدَىٰ فَأَخَذَتْهُمْ صَاعِقَةُ الْعَذَابِ الْهُونِ بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ


“And as for Thamud, We showed and made clear to them the Path of Truth (Islamic Monotheism) through Our Messenger, (i.e. showed them the way of success), but they preferred blindness to guidance, so the Sa’iqah (a destructive awful cry, torment, hit, a thunderbolt) of disgracing torment seized them, because of what they used to earn.”[10]

We made clear to them the True Way upon the tongue of our Prophet Saalih, upon him and our Prophet be peace and blessings, despite the fact that they did not traverse this way as proven by His سبحانه وتعالى saying, “but they preferred blindness over guidance.”

And,

إِنَّا هَدَيْنَاهُ السَّبِيلَ إِمَّا شَاكِرًا وَإِمَّا كَفُورًا

“Indeed, We guided him, whether he be grateful or ungrateful.”[11]

Meaning: We have made clear to him the Way of Good and the Way of Evil as proven by His saying, “whether he be grateful or ungrateful.”
Allah سبحانه وتعالى is clarifying in this verse that the Qur`an is a guidance for those that fear Allah سبحانه وتعالى, and it is understood from the implications of this verse – from the opposite understanding of the verse – that this Qur’an is not a guidance for those who do not fear Allah سبحانه وتعالى. This understanding has been clarified in other verses, like His saying,

قُلْ هُوَ لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا هُدًى وَشِفَاءٌ ۖ وَالَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ فِي آذَانِهِمْ وَقْرٌ وَهُوَ عَلَيْهِمْ عَمًى ۚ أُولَـٰئِكَ يُنَادَوْنَ مِن مَّكَانٍ بَعِيدٍ


Say: it is a guidance and healing for those who believe, as for those who do not believe there is a deafness in their ears and it is blindness for them”[12]

And many other ayaat one can refer to (17:83), (9:124-125), (5:64-65)
There are two types of guidance:
1)General which is for everyone and is for the clarifying the Truth

2)Specific which is for the Muslims and it is acting upon the Truth[13]

There are many meanings given by the ‘ulamaa’ for the word Muttaqeen :

AlHasan AlBasri رحمه الله said, “Who fear what they have been forbidden and fulfill what has been imposed upon them.”

‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهما said, “Those who guard themselves from Allah  سبحانه وتعالى;s punishment lest they abandon the guidance they are aware of and who hope His mercy for affirming the truth.”

‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas and ‘AbduLlah bin Mas’ud رضي الله عنهم said, “Those who are the believers (mu’minin).”

Qatadah رحمه الله said, “They are those whom Allah  سبحانه وتعالى has characterised and described, and then has confirmed their qualities, saying, ”Who believe in the Ghaib and establish As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), and spend out of what we have provided for them.’

AlKalbi رحمه الله said, “Those who keep away from major sins.” [14]

It was said, “They are those who love Allah  سبحانه وتعالى with their heart.”

Abu Sulaiman AlDaraani رحمه الله said, “Those who fear shirk and nifaaq.”

Ibn Mu’taz رحمه الله said, “Abandoning sins, both minor and major, that is piety. Do as the one, who walks across thorny terrain, he is wary of that which he sees. Do no look down on any minor (sin) – indeed, mountains are made up of pebbles.” [15]


[1] Tafsir AlTabari [his own opinion]

[2] Tafsir AlTabari [his own opinion]

[3] Adhwaa’ AlBayaan fee Idhaah AlQur`an bil Qur`an [author: Shaykh Muhammad AlAmeen AlShinqitee رحمه الله]

[4] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[5] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[6] Tafsir AlQurtubi

[7] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[8] Tafsir Ibn Kathir & Tafsir AlTabari

[9] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[10] AlQur`an AlKareem [41:17]

[11] AlQur`an AlKareem [76:3]

[12] AlQur`an AlKareem [41:44]

[13] Adhwaa’ AlBayaan fee Idhaah AlQur`an bil Qur`an

[14] Tafsir AlTabari

[15] Tafsir AlQurtubi

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