Thursday, 30 April,

A Collection of Tafsīr Surat Al Baqarah, Ayah #2

Posted in (02) Tafsīr Sūraħ Al Baqaraħ tagged , , , , , , at 11:21 pm by Ibn al-Kashmiri

بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
الحمد الله

Ayah 2:

ذَٰلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لَا رَيْبَ ۛ فِيهِ ۛ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ

“This is the Book (the Qur’an), whereof there is no doubt, a guidance to those who are Al-Muttaqun.”

The word ذَٰلِكَ literally means that but it is understood as ‘this.’ There three opinions on why هَذَا is not used:

1)”This is possible because whatever has just been mentioned is referred to again is like something present to the person addressed, even though it may mean something which is not present. … It is thus with <<dhalika ‘l-kitab>>, because He, exalted is His remembrance, preceded <<dhalika ‘l-kitab>> with <<alif-lam-mim>> whose freedom in its various aspects to take on the kind of meanings we described has been mentioned – and then He said to His Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم: “O’ Muhammad, this, which I have mentioned and made clear to you, is the Book.” Therefore, it was proper to put dhalik in place of hadha, because it indicates a reference to the meanings included in His saying <<alif-lam-mim>>. Since reference to it has just been made, it becomes like something present to the one it was pointed out to, so He referred to it by dhalik because of its having just been mentioned…”  [1]

2)”It is also possible that His words <<This is the Book>> mean the Surahs which He sent down before the Surah of the Cow in both Makkah and Madinah. It is as if He were saying to His Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم: “O’ Muhammad, whatever is contained in the Surahs which I have sent down to you is the Book in which there is no doubt.” Then the exegetes interpret it, giving dhalika the meaning, “This is the Book”, since these Surahs which were sent down before the Surah of Cow form the part of this whole Book of ours which Allah سبحانه و تعالى sent down to His Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم ”  [2]

3)”That the Arabs sometimes referred to something that was close with the distant demonstrative, so this verse was merely employing the conventions of the language. This opinion was related by AlBukhari رحمه اللهfrom Mu’mar bin AlMuthnaa Abu Ubaydah رحمه اللهas stated by Ibn Kathir رحمه الله[3]

الْكِتَابُ is the Qur`an

لَا رَيْبَ فِيهِ means:

1)There is no doubt in the Book[4]

2)It is used as a warning, “Do not doubt the Qur`an.” [5]

رَيْبَ has 3 meanings:

1)Doubt: what ignorant people say because they don’t exactly know

2)Suspicion: if something is authentic or nor

3)Deficiency: is something is lacking some important aspect[6]

هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ:

Guidance is an attribute of the Qur`an [7]
‘AbduLlah Ibn ‘Abbas and ‘AbduLlah Ibn Mas’ud رضي الله عنهم have said regarding this phrase, “Light for the Muttaqeen.” [8]
From this part of the ayah we understand many aspects of guidance:
1)Guidance is an attribute of Qur`an [9]

2)It is the type of guidance that when a person is blessed with he/she then conforms with AlIslam not like those who were given irshaad (guidance given by a person) but rejected it as Allah سبحانه وتعالى has said,

وَأَمَّا ثَمُودُ فَهَدَيْنَاهُمْ فَاسْتَحَبُّوا الْعَمَىٰ عَلَى الْهُدَىٰ فَأَخَذَتْهُمْ صَاعِقَةُ الْعَذَابِ الْهُونِ بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ

“And as for Thamud, We showed and made clear to them the Path of Truth (Islamic Monotheism) through Our Messenger, (i.e. showed them the way of success), but they preferred blindness to guidance, so the Sa’iqah (a destructive awful cry, torment, hit, a thunderbolt) of disgracing torment seized them, because of what they used to earn.”[10]

We made clear to them the True Way upon the tongue of our Prophet Saalih, upon him and our Prophet be peace and blessings, despite the fact that they did not traverse this way as proven by His سبحانه وتعالى saying, “but they preferred blindness over guidance.”


إِنَّا هَدَيْنَاهُ السَّبِيلَ إِمَّا شَاكِرًا وَإِمَّا كَفُورًا

“Indeed, We guided him, whether he be grateful or ungrateful.”[11]

Meaning: We have made clear to him the Way of Good and the Way of Evil as proven by His saying, “whether he be grateful or ungrateful.”
Allah سبحانه وتعالى is clarifying in this verse that the Qur`an is a guidance for those that fear Allah سبحانه وتعالى, and it is understood from the implications of this verse – from the opposite understanding of the verse – that this Qur’an is not a guidance for those who do not fear Allah سبحانه وتعالى. This understanding has been clarified in other verses, like His saying,

قُلْ هُوَ لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا هُدًى وَشِفَاءٌ ۖ وَالَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ فِي آذَانِهِمْ وَقْرٌ وَهُوَ عَلَيْهِمْ عَمًى ۚ أُولَـٰئِكَ يُنَادَوْنَ مِن مَّكَانٍ بَعِيدٍ

Say: it is a guidance and healing for those who believe, as for those who do not believe there is a deafness in their ears and it is blindness for them”[12]

And many other ayaat one can refer to (17:83), (9:124-125), (5:64-65)
There are two types of guidance:
1)General which is for everyone and is for the clarifying the Truth

2)Specific which is for the Muslims and it is acting upon the Truth[13]

There are many meanings given by the ‘ulamaa’ for the word Muttaqeen :

AlHasan AlBasri رحمه الله said, “Who fear what they have been forbidden and fulfill what has been imposed upon them.”

‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهما said, “Those who guard themselves from Allah  سبحانه وتعالى;s punishment lest they abandon the guidance they are aware of and who hope His mercy for affirming the truth.”

‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas and ‘AbduLlah bin Mas’ud رضي الله عنهم said, “Those who are the believers (mu’minin).”

Qatadah رحمه الله said, “They are those whom Allah  سبحانه وتعالى has characterised and described, and then has confirmed their qualities, saying, ”Who believe in the Ghaib and establish As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), and spend out of what we have provided for them.’

AlKalbi رحمه الله said, “Those who keep away from major sins.” [14]

It was said, “They are those who love Allah  سبحانه وتعالى with their heart.”

Abu Sulaiman AlDaraani رحمه الله said, “Those who fear shirk and nifaaq.”

Ibn Mu’taz رحمه الله said, “Abandoning sins, both minor and major, that is piety. Do as the one, who walks across thorny terrain, he is wary of that which he sees. Do no look down on any minor (sin) – indeed, mountains are made up of pebbles.” [15]

[1] Tafsir AlTabari [his own opinion]

[2] Tafsir AlTabari [his own opinion]

[3] Adhwaa’ AlBayaan fee Idhaah AlQur`an bil Qur`an [author: Shaykh Muhammad AlAmeen AlShinqitee رحمه الله]

[4] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[5] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[6] Tafsir AlQurtubi

[7] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[8] Tafsir Ibn Kathir & Tafsir AlTabari

[9] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[10] AlQur`an AlKareem [41:17]

[11] AlQur`an AlKareem [76:3]

[12] AlQur`an AlKareem [41:44]

[13] Adhwaa’ AlBayaan fee Idhaah AlQur`an bil Qur`an

[14] Tafsir AlTabari

[15] Tafsir AlQurtubi

A Collection of Tafsīr Surat Al Baqarah, Ayah #1

Posted in (02) Tafsīr Sūraħ Al Baqaraħ tagged , , , , , , at 11:20 pm by Ibn al-Kashmiri

بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
الحمد الله

After I attended the Breach of Covenant seminar, which was Tafsir of Surat AlBaqarah Juzz’ 1, held by AlMaghrib institute, I decided to go over the notes along with other Tafasir such as Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Tafsir AlTabari, Tafsir AlQurtubi, Adhwaa’ AlBayaan fee Idhaah AlQur`an bil Qur`an and others and will insha’Allah post notes from them as I continue:

Ayah 1:


“Alif, Laam, Meem.”

These letters are known as Huroof Al Muqatta’aat or disjointed letters. Their meanings are known to no one save Allah سبحانه وتعالى. They form the first (in some cases second) ayah (tayn) of 29 Suwaar (sing. Surah). 14 of the 28 Arabic letters have been used for this purpose.
There are many opinions given by the ‘ulamaa’ of the Salaf on the meaning of this ayah but the correct answer would be to say that Allah سبحانه وتعالى knows best.

Ibn Jarir AlTabari رحمه الله mentions probably the reason why Allah سبحانه وتعالىuses Huroof Al Muqatta’aat,” And others said instead that the beginnings of the Suwar started with these letters because the polytheists, whose attitude was to avoid listening to the Qur`an, would prick up their ears when they heard them; then, whenever they gave ear, that which was composed of the letter would be recited to them.”[1] And indeed Allah سبحانه وتعالى knows best.

[1] Tafsir AlTabari [his own opinion]

Devil’s Deception in Delaying the Repentence

Posted in (33) Tafsīr Sūraħ Al-Aḥzāb tagged , , , , , , , , , , at 11:15 pm by Ibn al-Kashmiri

بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

الحمد الله

How many times do we tell ourselves that we will repent later and not now? How many times we hear people saying, “I am young, let me enjoy. I will repent when I will be old!” Are we waiting for death to strike us unawares when we have not repented? Till how long will we allow Shayṭān to deceive us? Allāh سبحانه و تعالى gives us the answer for this question by describing the people of Taqwa for whom Paradise is the reward,

وَالَّذِينَ إِذَا فَعَلُوا فَاحِشَةً أَوْ ظَلَمُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ ذَكَرُوا اللَّهَ فَاسْتَغْفَرُوا لِذُنُوبِهِمْ وَمَن يَغْفِرُ الذُّنُوبَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَلَمْ يُصِرُّوا عَلَىٰ مَا فَعَلُوا وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ

And those who, when they have committed Fahishah or wronged themselves with evil, remember Allah and ask forgiveness for their sins; – and none can forgive sins but Allah – And do not persist in what (wrong) they have done, while they know.[1]

Anas bin Mālik رضي الله عنه said, “I was told that when this Ayah, was revealed, Iblīs cried.”[2]

Mujāhid رحمه الله said, “These are two sins; Fāḥishah is one sin and their Dhulm upon themselves is another sin.”[3]

This ayah confirms with the ḥadīth when Rasūl Allāh صلى الله عليه و سلم said, “Fear Allah wherever you may be; follow up an evil deed with a good one which will wipe (the former) out, and behave good-naturedly towards people.”[4] Asking for forgiveness sincerely is in itself a good deed that leads others.

Imām Al Wāhidī رحمه الله mentions the reason of revelation of this ayah, “Aṭa’ reported that Ibn ‘Abbās رضي الله عنهما said: “This was revealed about Nabhān, the seller of dates. A beautiful woman came to buy dates from him. He hugged and kissed her but then he regretted his action. He went to Rasūl Allāh صلى الله عليه و سلم and mentioned what he did. This verse was then revealed”. And he said, according to the narration of al-Kalbī: “Rasūl Allāh صلى الله عليه و سلم tied two men, one from the Helpers and one from Thaqīf, with the bond of brotherhood and they were inseparable. Rasūl Allāh صلى الله عليه و سلم went out one day to one of his military expeditions and the man from Thaqīf accompanied him, leaving his wife and business under the care of the Helper who used to look after the family of the man from Thaqīf. One day he saw the wife of his friend who had just finished having a bath, with her hair spread, and he fell for her. He entered in on her without asking permission and leaned to kiss her but she put her hand on her face such that he kissed the outside of her hand. But then he regretted what he had done, felt the shame of his action and retreated. Upon his retreat, his friend’s wife exclaimed: ‘Glory be to Allāh! You have betrayed your trust, disobeyed your Lord and failed to get what you desired!’ Regretting his action, the man went wandering in the mountains, to repent to Allāh سبحانه و تعالى, from his action. When the man from Thaqīf returned to his family, she informed him of what had happened. He went out looking for his friend until somebody told him where to find him. He found him in prostration, saying: ‘My Lord, my sin! My sin! I have betrayed my brother!’ His friend said: ‘O so-and-so come let us go to Rasūl Allāh صلى الله عليه و سلم and ask him about your sin, haply Allāh سبحانه و تعالى will ease your situation and relent on you’. And so he went back with him until they reached Madīnah one day, at the time of ‘Asr prayer and Jibrīl عليه السلام brought down the news of the acceptance of his repentance. Rasūl Allāh صلى الله عليه و سلم recited to him (And those who, when they do an evil thing) up to His saying (a bountiful reward for workers!). When he finished ‘Umar [ibn al-Khattab] رضي الله عنه asked: “O Rasūl Allāh! This applies specifically to him or is it to all people?’ Rasūl Allāh صلى الله عليه و سلم said: ‘No, it applies to all.’”[5]

The Tafsīr:

وَالَّذِينَ إِذَا فَعَلُوا فَاحِشَةً

الَّذِينَ refers to the Muttaqīn in the ayah 132

Imām Al Ṭabarī رحمه الله comments on this verse, “The meaning of Fāḥishah is the ugly action that takes one out of what Allāh (SWT has made permissible. And the roots of the Faḥsh (pl. Fāḥishah) is the unpleasantness and the exceeding of limits (set by Allāh سبحانه و تعالى) and amounts in everything

As-Suddi رحمه الله said that the Fāḥishah in this ayah adultery/fornication

Imām Al Māwardī رحمه الله writes in his book of tafsīr, “As for Fāḥishah, then there are two statements regarding it:

1) Major disobedience (i.e. major sins)

2) Usury and this is the saying of Jābir رحمه الله[6]

أَوْ ظَلَمُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ

Ibrāhīm رحمه الله said, “Dhulm is from Fāḥishah and Fāḥishah is from Dhulm.

Imām ash-Shawkānī رحمه الله writes in his tafsīr, “By committing sins.”[7]

Imām Al Māwardī رحمه الله explains the meaning, “The intended meaning is minor disobedience (i.e. minor sin).”[8]

ذَكَرُوا اللَّهَ

Al Kalbī رحمه الله says, “They contemplate about it within themselves that they would be asked by Allāh سبحانه و تعالى about it.”[9]

Muqātil رحمه الله said, “They remember Allāh سبحانه و تعالى with tongue at the committing of sins.”[10]

Imām Al Qurṭubī رحمه الله comments on this by saying, “Meaning (they remember) with fear from His punishment and shyness from Him.”[11]

Imām Al Māwardī رحمه الله mentions two points regarding this phrase,”

1) They remember Allāh سبحانه و تعالى in their heart and do not forget Him. They choose to remember Him in repentance and forgiveness.”

2) They remember Allāh سبحانه و تعالى with the words, “O’ Allāh, forgive our sins!” For Allāh سبحانه و تعالى has made easy upon this Ummah what He made difficult upon Banī Isra’īl. When one of them committed a sin, he found the following morning, written on his door step, what he should do to expiate his sin, ‘cut off your nose’, ‘cut off your ear’, ‘do this or do that and ask for forgiveness.’ And this is the saying of Ibn Mas’ūd and ‘Aṭa bin Abi Rabāḥ رضي الله عنهما.

The meaning of the phrase فَاسْتَغْفَرُوا لِذُنُوبِهِمْ وَمَن يَغْفِرُ الذُّنُوبَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ is clear so I will not go into its tafsīr

وَلَمْ يُصِرُّوا عَلَىٰ مَا فَعَلُوا وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ

Al Ḥāfidh Ibn Kathīr comments, “For they repent from their error, return to Allāh سبحانه و تعالى before death, do not insist on error, and if they err again, they repent from it.”[12]

Mujāhid and `Abdullāh bin ‘Ubayd bin ‘Umayr رحمهما الله commented, “Whoever repents, then Allah will forgive him.”[13]

Imām Al Māwardī رحمه الله says,“ Sinning in secret and leaving it with seeking forgiveness from it as as-Suddī said.”[14]

May Allāh سبحانه و تعالى make us Muttaqīn. Allāhumma Amīn

[1] Surat `Al ‘Imrān, 3:135

[2] Tafsīr Al Qur’ān Al Karīm (Ibn Kathīr)

[3] Jāmi‘ Al Bayān Fī Tafsīr Al Qur’ān (Aabarī)

[4] Sunan at-Tirmidhī, ḥadīth is Ḥasan Ṣaḥiḥ

[5] Asbāb al-Nuzūl Al Wāhidī (Al Wāhidī)

[6] Al Nakat wal ‘Uyūn (Al Māwardī)

[7] Fat Al Qadīr(ash-Shawkānī)

[8] Al Nakat wal ‘Uyūn (Al Māwardī)

[9] Jāmi‘ Al Aḥkām Al Qur’ān (Al Qurṭubī)

[10] Ibid

[11] Ibid

[12] Tafsīr Al Qur’ān Al Karīm (Ibn Kathīr)

[13] Ibid

[14] Al Nakat wal ‘Uyūn (Al Māwardī)